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Austin Bankruptcy - The Bankruptcy Process

At The Law Offices Of R.J.Atkinson,LLC we can guide you through the Bankruptcy Process from the initial filing to discharge. We have offices in Houston, Austin, San Antonio, and Dallas and have filed over 1500 bankruptcy cases which have helped individuals and businesses obtain debt relief, stop foreclosures, stop repossession and protect their property as allowed under the Bankruptcy Code. If you are considering Bankruptcy it is important to understand the Bankruptcy Process.

The Bankruptcy Process

Article I, Section 8, of the United States Constitution authorizes Congress to enact "uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies." Under this grant of authority, Congress enacted the "Bankruptcy Code" in 1978. The Bankruptcy Code, which is codified as title 11 of the United States Code, has been amended several times since its enactment. It is the uniform federal law that governs all bankruptcy cases.

The procedural aspects of the bankruptcy process are governed by the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure (often called the "Bankruptcy Rules") and local rules of each bankruptcy court. The Bankruptcy Rules contain a set of official forms for use in bankruptcy cases. The Bankruptcy Code and Bankruptcy Rules (and local rules) set forth the formal legal procedures for dealing with the debt problems of individuals and businesses.

There is a bankruptcy court for each judicial district in the country. Each state has one or more districts. There are 90 bankruptcy districts across the country. The bankruptcy courts generally have their own clerk's offices.

The court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases is the United States bankruptcy judge, a judicial officer of the United States district court. The bankruptcy judge may decide any matter connected with a bankruptcy case, such as eligibility to file or whether a debtor should receive a discharge of debts. Much of the bankruptcy process is administrative, however, and is conducted away from the courthouse. In cases under chapters 7, 12, or 13, and sometimes in chapter 11 cases, this administrative process is carried out by a trustee who is appointed to oversee the case.

A debtor's involvement with the bankruptcy judge is usually very limited. A typical chapter 7 debtor will not appear in court and will not see the bankruptcy judge unless an objection is raised in the case. A chapter 13 debtor may only have to appear before the bankruptcy judge at a plan confirmation hearing. Usually, the only formal proceeding at which a debtor must appear is the meeting of creditors, which is usually held at the offices of the U.S. trustee. This meeting is informally called a "341 meeting" because section 341 of the Bankruptcy Code requires that the debtor attend this meeting so that creditors can question the debtor about debts and property.

A fundamental goal of the federal bankruptcy laws enacted by Congress is to give debtors a financial "fresh start" from burdensome debts. The Supreme Court made this point about the purpose of the bankruptcy law in a 1934 decision: [I]t gives to the honest but unfortunate debtor… a new opportunity in life and a clear field for future effort, unhampered by the pressure and discouragement of preexisting debt.

Local Loan Co. v. Hunt, 292 U.S. 234, 244 (1934). This goal is accomplished through the bankruptcy discharge, which releases debtors from personal liability from specific debts and prohibits creditors from ever taking any action against the debtor to collect those debts. This publication describes the bankruptcy discharge in a question and answer format, discussing the timing of the discharge, the scope of the discharge (what debts are discharged and what debts are not discharged), objections to discharge, and revocation of the discharge. It also describes what a debtor can do if a creditor attempts to collect a discharged debt after the bankruptcy case is concluded.

Six basic types of bankruptcy cases are provided for under the Bankruptcy Code, each of which is discussed in this publication. The cases are traditionally given the names of the chapters that describe them.

  • Chapter 7, entitled Liquidation, contemplates an orderly, court-supervised procedure by which a trustee takes over the assets of the debtor's estate, reduces them to cash, and makes distributions to creditors, subject to the debtor's right to retain certain exempt property and the rights of secured creditors. Because there is usually little or no nonexempt property in most chapter 7 cases, there may not be an actual liquidation of the debtor's assets. These cases are called "no-asset cases." A creditor holding an unsecured claim will get a distribution from the bankruptcy estate only if the case is an asset case and the creditor files a proof of claim with the bankruptcy court. In most chapter 7 cases, if the debtor is an individual, he or she receives a discharge that releases him or her from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. The debtor normally receives a discharge just a few months after the petition is filed. Amendments to the Bankruptcy Code enacted in to the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 require the application of a "means test" to determine whether individual consumer debtors qualify for relief under chapter 7. If such a debtor's income is in excess of certain thresholds, the debtor may not be eligible for chapter 7 relief.
  • Chapter 13, entitled Adjustment of Debts of an Individual With Regular Income, is designed for an individual debtor who has a regular source of income. Chapter 13 is often preferable to chapter 7 because it enables the debtor to keep a valuable asset, such as a house, and because it allows the debtor to propose a "plan" to repay creditors over time usually three to five years. Chapter 13 is also used by consumer debtors who do not qualify for chapter 7 relief under the means test. At a confirmation hearing, the court either approves or disapproves the debtor's repayment plan, depending on whether it meets the Bankruptcy Code's requirements for confirmation. Chapter 13 is very different from chapter 7 since the chapter 13 debtor usually remains in possession of the property of the estate and makes payments to creditors, through the trustee, based on the debtor's anticipated income over the life of the plan. Unlike chapter 7, the debtor does not receive an immediate discharge of debts. The debtor must complete the payments required under the plan before the discharge is received. The debtor is protected from lawsuits, garnishments, and other creditor actions while the plan is in effect. The discharge is also somewhat broader (i.e., more debts are eliminated) under chapter 13 than the discharge under chapter 7.
  • Chapter 11, entitled Reorganization, ordinarily is used by commercial enterprises that desire to continue operating a business and repay creditors concurrently through a court-approved plan of reorganization. The chapter 11 debtor usually has the exclusive right to file a plan of reorganization for the first 120 days after it files the case and must provide creditors with a disclosure statement containing information adequate to enable creditors to evaluate the plan. The court ultimately approves (confirms) or disapproves the plan of reorganization. Under the confirmed plan, the debtor can reduce its debts by repaying a portion of its obligations and discharging others. The debtor can also terminate burdensome contracts and leases, recover assets, and rescale its operations in order to return to profitability. Under chapter 11, the debtor normally goes through a period of consolidation and emerges with a reduced debt load and a reorganized business.
  • Chapter 12, entitled Adjustment of Debts of a Family Farmer or Fisherman with Regular Annual Income, provides debt relief to family farmers and fishermen with regular income. The process under chapter 12 is very similar to that of chapter 13, under which the debtor proposes a plan to repay debts over a period of time no more than three years unless the court approves a longer period, not exceeding five years. There is also a trustee in every chapter 12 case whose duties are very similar to those of a chapter 13 trustee. The chapter 12 trustee's disbursement of payments to creditors under a confirmed plan parallels the procedure under chapter 13. Chapter 12 allows a family farmer or fisherman to continue to operate the business while the plan is being carried out.
  • Chapter 9, entitled Adjustment of Debts of a Municipality, provides essentially for reorganization, much like a reorganization under chapter 11. Only a "municipality" may file under chapter 9, which includes cities and towns, as well as villages, counties, taxing districts, municipal utilities, and school districts.
  • The purpose of Chapter 15, entitled Ancillary and Other Cross-Border Cases, is to provide an effective mechanism for dealing with cases of cross-border insolvency. This publication discusses the applicability of Chapter 15 where a debtor or its property is subject to the laws of the United States and one or more foreign countries.

In addition to the basic types of bankruptcy cases, Bankruptcy Basics provides an overview of the Servicemembers' Civil Relief Act, which, among other things, provides protection to members of the military against the entry of default judgments and gives the court the ability to stay proceedings against military debtors.

This publication also contains a description of liquidation proceedings under the Securities Investor Protection Act ("SIPA"). Although the Bankruptcy Code provides for a stockbroker liquidation proceeding, it is far more likely that a failing brokerage firm will find itself involved in a SIPA proceeding. The purpose of SIPA is to return to investors securities and cash left with failed brokerages. Since being established by Congress in 1970, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation has protected investors who deposit stocks and bonds with brokerage firms by ensuring that every customer's property is protected, up to $500,000 per customer.

The bankruptcy process is complex and relies on legal concepts like the "automatic stay," "discharge," "exemptions," and "assume." Therefore, the final chapter of this publication is a glossary of Bankruptcy Terminology which explains, in layman's terms, most of the legal concepts that apply in cases filed under the Bankruptcy Code.

Public Information Series
Bankruptcy Judges Division
Administrative Office of the United States Courts

If you have questions about the Bankruptcy Process please contact The Law Offices of R.J.Atkinson,LLC at 512-617-2899 for a free initial consultation to discuss your Bankruptcy options. With locations in Houston, San Antonio, Austin, and Dallas we are a Texas Debt Relief Agency and help people file for Bankruptcy under the Bankruptcy Code. Don’t get lost in Debt.

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Filing Bankruptcy can sometimes be the fastest way to get out of debt and may be the most affordable way to get a fresh financial start. Chapter 7 Bankruptcy can quickly wipe out your debts, increase your credit score, stop wage garnishments, get rid of credit card debt, eliminate medical bills, stop payday loans, stop bill collectors, erase negative credit reporting, and reestablish new credit after bankruptcy. RJ Atkinson — Austin Bankruptcy Lawyers have payment plans to make filing Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 Bankruptcy affordable which include low cost flat fees for Chapter 7 that may be considered the cheapest bankruptcy attorney fees compared to fees other bankruptcy lawyers charge. Chapter 13 Bankruptcy can save your home from foreclosure, save your car from repossession, lower monthly payments, reduce interest rates, get rid of late fees, reduce credit card interest, payoff high credit card debt, raise your credit score, stop creditor harassment, get rid of debt, reduce debt, eliminate creditor calls at work, stop collection calls, start over financially, discharge debts and/or be debt free in 3 to 5 years. IRS tax problems, tax levies, wage garnishments, back taxes, payroll taxes, income taxes can often be handled in Chapter 13 bankruptcy. Divorce/Bankruptcy – past due child support arrears, alimony, spousal support, and divorce debt can often be handled in chapter 13 bankruptcy. The Law Offices of RJ Atkinson handles debt consolidation, loan modifications, credit card debt settlement, debt negotiation, lawsuit defense, IRS problems, credit card lawsuits, TROs temporary restraining orders to stop foreclosure, forbearance agreements to stop foreclosure, FDCPA Fair Debt Collection Practices Act lawsuits, FCRA Fair Credit Reporting Act lawsuits, credit report disputes, debt collection lawsuits, adversary complaints in bankruptcy, bankruptcies, foreclosure workouts, mortgage short sales, real estate property tax disputes, civil litigation, commercial litigation, tax lawsuits, small business bankruptcy, corporate bankruptcy, business creditor representation, and most every kind of debt related issue or financially based legal problem on a case by case basis.

Austin Bankruptcy Attorneys at RJ Atkinson handle Personal Bankruptcy and Business Bankruptcy cases in and around Austin TX Travis County, as well as the Counties of Williamson, Bastrop, and Hays. If you live in Austin and would like to file for Bankruptcy, the Austin Bankruptcy Lawyers at RJ Atkinson represent people and businesses in Bankruptcy proceedings throughout the Austin area. We accept bankruptcy cases in Austin Texas, Georgetown Texas, Round Rock Texas, San Marcos Texas, or in the Cities of Barton Creek, Bartlett, Bastrop, Bear Creek, Bee Cave, Blanco, Briarcliff, Buda, Cedar Park, Creedmoor, Coupland, Dripping Springs, Elgin, Florence, Garfield, Georgetown, Granger, Hutto, Hudson Bend, Jollyville, Jonestown, Jarrell, Johnson City, Kyle, Lago Vista, Lakeway, Leander, Liberty Hill, Lost Creek, Luling, Manchaca, Manor, Mountain City, Norman’s Crossing, Onion Creek, Pflugerville, Point Venture, Rollingwood, San Leanna, Shady hollow, Smithville, Sunset Valley, Taylor, Thorndale, Thrall, The Hills, Volente, Waterloo, Weir, Webberville, Wells Branch, West Lake Hills, Wimberley, Windmere, Woodcreek, or most anywhere in the Austin area.
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